|Exam Board: AQA.
A-Level will take two papers. Unit One on Russia in the Age of Absolutism and Enlightenment and Unit Two on the English Revolution 1625-60.
There are three modules in the AQA A2 course:
HIS1E: Russia in the Age of Absolutism and Enlightenment, 1682-1796. This will change 2019 Y12 entry to HIS1L: Germany 1871-1991.
One 2hr 30min written examination. 40% of A Level.
HIS2E: The English Revolution 1625-1660.
One 2hr 30min written examination. 40% of A Level.
HIS3: Historical Enquiry. (Coursework):
Unit One will change 2019 Y12 entry onwards (i.e. first A level exam 2021) to Germany 1871-1991 (HIS1L)
UNIT 1E (Last: 2019-2020). Changes to Unit 1L Germany from A Level exam May 2021.
Russia in the Age of Absolutism and Enlightenment, 1682-1796
Introduction. This option allows students to study in breadth issues of change, continuity, cause and consequence in this period through the following key questions:
•• How far were the rulers of Russia able to establish and maintain authority?
•• How and why did Russian society and the economy develop?
•• How important were ideology and ideas?
•• How far were objectives in foreign policy achieved?
•• How significant was opposition and how effectively was it dealt with?
•• How important was the role of key individuals and groups and how were they affected by developments?
Part One: Peter the Great and Russia, 1682–1725 AS and A Level (Year 12)
Establishing authority, 1682–1707
•• The political, economic and social position of Russia in 1682: the Tsars and the nobility; economic backwardness and serfdom; Russia as a traditional, Slav society
•• The Regency; the role of the Streltsy; Peter as joint ruler and the establishment of sole rule
•• Westernisation; influences on Peter as a child; the Great Embassy; the reasons for and significance of the development of St Petersburg
•• Early reforms: economic and financial; political; military; changes in society
•• Opposition: the Church; the Streltsy
•• Foreign affairs and wars: wars against Turkey and Sweden
Increasing the glory of Russia, 1707–1725
•• Economic and financial reforms and their success
•• Orthodoxy and developments in the Church: attempts to increase the power of the Tsar
•• Changes to central and local government; the reform of the army and the introduction of the Table of Ranks and the Service State
•• Social developments, Westernisation and extent of change by 1725
•• Opposition: Astrakhan; Bashkir; Don Cossacks; Tsarevich Alexis
•• Foreign affairs and wars: wars with Sweden and Turkey; involvement in European conflicts:
Part Two: Enlightenment Russia, 1725–1796 (Year 13)
The epoch of palace coups, 1725–1762
•• The legacy of Peter the Great: the Service State; the role of the Church; the gentry and serfdom; Russia’s involvement in international affairs
•• Disputed successions and the role of the Supreme State Council and the Preobrazhensky Regiment
•• Tsarina Elizabeth: accession to the throne; education and Westernisation; legal reforms; taxation
•• Social developments: the redefinition of the Service State; serfdom and serf unrest
•• Foreign affairs: intervention in Poland; failure to secure the Crimea; involvement in the Seven Years War
•• Russia by 1762: the extent to which Petrine reforms survived; the accession of Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great and Russia, 1762–1796 (Year 13)
•• Catherine: character and aims; extent of influence of the Enlightenment and the impact of the French Revolution on Catherine
•• Developments in central and local government: codification of the law; the Great Commission; reform of the Senate; changes to local government in towns and rural areas
•• Changes to society: the importance of landownership and the gentry; Enlightenment and education; reforms to religion
•• The economy and the persistence of serfdom and its impact on economic development
•• Opposition and rebellion; plots against her and Catherine’s reaction; the Pugachev Revolt and its consequences
•• Foreign affairs and wars: Sweden; Turkey and Crimea; wars with Poland and its partition
UNIT 1L: Germany 1871-1991 (from Sept 2019 Year 12 entry, first exam May 2021)
Part One: Empire to democracy, 1871–1929.
AS and A Level (i.e. Year 12)
The Kaiserreich, 1871-1914.
· Political authority: the extent and make-up of the German Empire in 1871; the 1871 constitution; the role of Emperor and Chancellor; political groupings and parties and their ideologies
· Government and opposition: Kaiser Wilhelm I and government under Bismarck; their personalities and policies; the role of the Reichstag; the struggle between autocracy and democracy; the development of parties and political opposition
· Government and opposition: Kaiser Wilhelm II and his chancellors; personalities and policies; the place of the Reichstag; the struggle between autocracy and democracy; the development of parties and political opposition
· Economic developments: industrial expansion; old and new industries; trade and wealth
· Social developments: the class hierarchy; elitism and the culture of militarism; the condition of the working people
· The political, economic and social condition of Germany by 1914
Empire to Democracy, 1914-1929
· Political authority: the political impact of the First World War on Germany; political change and breakdown by 1918; the 1918 revolution; the establishment of democratic government in the Weimar constitution
· Government and opposition to 1924: post-war political problems; attempted coups and the opposition of left and right; the occupation of the Ruhr; the working of Weimar government; its strengths and weaknesses
· Government and opposition 1924–1929: the impact of the Ruhr invasion and the leadership of Stresemann; degree of governmental change; degree of opposition
· Economic developments: the impact of war; post-war economic problems and policies; reparations; hyperinflation; Dawes and Young Plans and foreign loans; industrial growth; agriculture
· Social developments: the effect of war on German society; social and cultural changes in Weimar Germany
· The political, economic and social condition of Germany by 1929
Part Two: the impact of Nazism, war and division, 1929–1991
A Level Only. (i.e. Year 13)
The Nazi experiment, 1929–1949
· Political authority 1929–1945: the collapse of Weimar democracy and the establishment of the one-party authoritarian Nazi State; the roles of Hindenburg and Hitler
· Government and opposition to 1945: Nazism as an ideology and in practice; Hitler's style of government; the Terror State; opposition and resistance; key Nazi leaders; the effect of war
· Political authority and government 1945–1949: post-war occupation and division; the issue of Berlin and the blockade; the division of Germany
· Economic developments: the impact of the Depression; recovery and development under Nazis in peace and war; the post-war economy
· Social developments and tensions; Nazi social policies including Volksgemeinschaft and the racial state; Nazi culture; postwar German society and the legacy of Nazism
· The political, economic and social condition of Germany by 1949
Division to unity: the Federal Republic of Germany, 1949–1991
· Political authority: Adenauer as Chancellor and establishment of democracy in Western Germany; the constitution, checks and balances; the state of German democracy
· Government and opposition: governments; parties and policies; chancellors after Adenauer and coalition governments under the three party system; the search for consensus
· Extra-parliamentary opposition and pressure: student protest; urban terrorism and the Baader-Meinhof gang; environmentalism
· Economic developments: the growth of the West German economy; the economic miracle and its aftermath; participation in the EEC/EU; impact of the oil crisis
· Social developments: the effect of the Nazi legacy; standards of living; changes to the position of women, youth, unemployment; social tensions; modern culture
· The political, economic and social condition of reunified Germany by 1991: Kohl and the drive to reunification; strengths and problems of reunification
UNIT 2E: The English Revolution 1625-1660.
This option provides for the study in depth of the challenges faced by those in authority in the years before, during and after the English Civil War. It explores concepts such as Divine Right; arbitrary government, Arminianism, and political and religious radicalism. It also encourages an in-depth understanding of how government works, arbitrary government and consensus, authority and opposition and issues of settlement.
Part One: The Origins of the English Civil War, 1625–1642 AS and A Level (i.e. Year 12)
The emergence of conflict and the end of consensus, 1625–1629
• The legacy of James I: religious issues and divisions; relations between Crown and Parliament; relations with foreign powers
• Monarchy and Divine Right: the character and aims of Charles I; the Queen and the court; the King's advisers; ideas of royal authority
• Challenges to the arbitrary government of Charles I: reactions against financial policies; conflict over Church; reactions against foreign policy and the role of Buckingham
• Parliamentary radicalism; personalities and policies of parliamentary opposition to the King; the Petition of Right; the dissolution of Parliament and the King’s commitment to Personal Rule
An experiment in Absolutism, 1629–1640
• Charles I’s Personal Rule: his chief ministers; methods of government; financial policies and the reaction against them
• Religious issues: Laud and Arminianism in England and Scotland; the growth of opposition from Puritans
• Political issues: the role of Wentworth; policies in Ireland and England; the reactions against the Crown; demands for the recall of Parliament
• Radicalism, dissent and the approach of war: the spread of religious radicalism; the Scottish Covenant and the Bishops War; the Pacification of Berwick; the second Scottish war
The crisis of Parliament and the outbreak of the First Civil War, 1640–1642
• The Divided Political Nation 1640: the recall of Parliament; the strengths and weaknesses of Charles I; the strengths and divisions of parliamentary opposition
• Pym and the development of parliamentary radicalism: Pym’s personality and aims; the Grand Remonstrance; the London mob; popular radicalism
• Conflicts between Crown and Parliament: attempts to impose royal authority and the development of a Royalist Party; the execution of Strafford and its political consequences
• The slide into war: the impact of events in Ireland; the failed arrest of the Five Members; local grievances; failure of negotiations between the King and the
Long Parliament; military preparations for war
Part Two: Radicalism, Republic and Restoration, 1642–1660. A Level only (Year 13)
War and radicalism, 1642–1646
• The First Civil War: the strengths and weaknesses of the political and military leadership of the Royalist cause
• The First Civil War: the strengths and weaknesses of the political and military leadership of the Parliamentary forces; emergence of the New Model Army; the Solemn League and Covenant; Self Denying Ordinance
• The intensification of radicalism: popular radicalism in London; religious radicalism in the New Model Army; pamphlets and propaganda
• The end of the First Civil War: divisions amongst the Parliamentary leaders; attempts at settlement; the capture of Charles I
The disintegration of the Political Nation, 1646–1649
• Political and religious radicalism: the politicisation of the New Model Army; Lilburne and the Levellers; Fifth Monarchists; Ranters and other populist groups
• Political and religious divisions: the attitude and actions of Charles I; divisions within the opposition to the King; the failure of attempts to reach a political settlement
• The Second Civil War and the reasons for its outcome
• The problem of Charles I: divisions within the army and Parliament; the trial and execution of the King
Experiments in Government and Society, 1648–1660
• The Third Civil War: the attempted Royalist revival; the defeat and exile of Prince Charles
• Political radicalism: failure of the Levellers and Diggers and the ‘Godly Society’; Quakers, Baptists and other radical sects; the Rump Parliament as an experiment in radical republicanism
• Oliver Cromwell and the Protectorate: Cromwell’s personality and approach to government and his refusal of the Crown; the limits of religious toleration; the Major Generals; the problem of the succession to Cromwell
• The monarchy restored: political vacuum after the death of Cromwell; negotiations for the return of the monarchy under Charles II; the legacy of the English Revolution by 1660
Exam Board: AQA.
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